The pioneer of cryophysics. A man who suffered for his homeland and died for science
Zygmunt Florenty Wróblewski (1845-1888) – a Polish physicist and chemist; fighter for Poland’s independence in an 1863 anti-Russian uprising
Source: By Unknown photographer - scanned from Polish "Problemy" monthly, May 1964, Public Domain, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=6766267
In the second part of the 19th century, the subject of gas liquefaction had established its place in history. In 1790 carbon dioxide had been liquefied; ammonia and many other gases quickly followed. In two series of experiments, conducted in 1823 and 1845, Michael Faraday liquefied all of the known gases except for oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen, nitric oxide, carbon monoxide and methane. Since that time, many ineffective tests were done in an attempt to liquefy these so called ‘permanent gases’. In 1877, Louis Cailletet (in Paris) and Raoul Pictet (in Geneva), independently of each other, liquefied oxygen and nitrogen in dynamic state, i.e. they brought them to the form of a fog that they could observe for a very short period of time. But no one managed to liquefy these two main components of the air in a static state until a duet of two Polish scientists, one of whom was named Zygmunt Wróblewski, arrived on the scene.
The King of Low Temperatures
On a frosty day in February 1846, peasants rebelling against the Polish gentry in the southern Poland forced their way into the Broniszów village. The peasants killed its heir, ravaged the demesne and decided to kill the trustee and tenant Jan Olszewski as well. Seeing them coming, Jan took his son, jumped onto nearby sleigh and started running away. Aware of the fact that he would not be able to escape for much longer and wishing to save his son, Jan threw away a bundle with the baby inside it at the turning of the road. Shortly afterwards, a drunk bunch of raiders hunted Jan down and killed him. The “saved-by-the-bell” infant was found by peasant women and returned to his mother. This miraculously rescued boy was none other than Karol Olszewski, a future scientist; a great chemist, nominated for the Nobel Prize for Physics, an inventor and innovator of world class stature in the field of low-temperature physics and cryogenics.
Whose face will mark the 100th anniversary of RAF / The face of Royal Air Force
The Woman of Many Firsts
Maria Skłodowska-Curie is probably one of the greatest scientists of all time. Her accomplishments brought her worldwide fame and you probably know or at least might have heard of her too. She was the first woman to receive two Nobel prizes in different fields. But that is not the end of her achievements, this is only an introduction to an amazing history of a woman who changed our everyday reality.